I was in 1st year of college when I knew him and he was in his 3rd year of high school. We became close because of one thing and that was “Love.” He had a girlfriend and I had none.
I told him every detail of my life and about my feelings for my crush and he did the same thing. He cared for me more than his sister and I was doing the same thing to him. I just didn’t know that I was beginning to like him because he was 2 years younger than I was and besides, he had a girlfriend. That summer, we had a youth camp in our place.
We really had a great time together and when it was time to rest, he accompanied me to the tent with his feet outside because girls and boys weren’t allowed to sleep together, but there were too many mosquitoes that he let his whole body get in the tent with the door open. But, the insects started to get in, so we decided to close the tent and we were sleeping side by side.
We talked and talked when suddenly, he asked me, “Why do I love you?” I answered him saying, “Because God said ‘Love one another.’” Then, he smiled and kissed me on the check and there was silence… after a while he embraced me and said “You’ll never forget me.” I nodded, but then he told me the same phrase again and I hardly heard him. When I asked him, he suddenly kissed my lips and hug me.
After that, I really didn’t know what to say or do because I was really shocked and shy. I just turn my back away from him and look at the stars above.
He listened to the beatings of my heart and asked me why my heart was beating so fast.
I blamed him for that. The next morning, he looked at me and when we got the chance to talk, he teased me with the question, “who was your first kiss?” I just smiled because I can’t forget the time his lips touched mine.
That was the time that I proved to myself and to everyone that first kisses are always the sweetest, especially if it’s an unexpected kiss….
Anaxagoras (c. 500 – 428 B.C.) was an early Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Ionia, although he was one of the first philosophers to move to Athens as a base.
He is sometimes considered to be part of the poorly-defined school of Pluralism, and some of his ideas also influenced the later development of Atomism. Many of his ideas in the physical sciences were quite revolutionary in their day, and quite insightful in retrospect.
Anaxagoras. (pronounced an-ax-AG-or-as) was born around 500 B.C. to an aristocratic and landed family in the city of Clazomenae (or Klazomenai) in the Greek colony of Ionia (on the west coast of present-day Turkey). As a young man, he became the first of the major Pre-Socratic philosophers to move to Athens (which was then rapidly becoming the center of Greek culture), where he remained for about thirty years.
During this time he became a favorite (and possibly a teacher) of the prominent and influential statesman, orator and general Pericles (c. 495 – 429 B.C.), one of the architects of Athens’ primacy during the Golden Age. Although it seems that Anaxagoras and the young Socrates never actually met, one of Socrates’ teachers, Archelaus, studied under Anaxagoras for some time. His work was also known to the major writers of the day, including Sophocles, Euripides, Aeschylus and Aristophanes.
In about 450 B.C., however, Anaxagoras was arrested by Pericles’ political opponents on a charge of contravening the established religion by his teachings on origins of the universe, the first philosopher before Socrates to be brought to trial for impiety. With Pericles’ influence he was released, but he was forced to retire from Athens to exile in Lampsacus in Ionia, where he died around the year 428 B.C.
Anaxagoras wrote at least one book of philosophy, but only fragments of the first part of this have survived in work of Simplicius of Cilicia in the 6th Century A.D.
He is best known for his cosmological theory of the origins and structure of the universe. He maintained that the original state of the cosmos was a thorough mixture of all its ingredients, although this mixture was not entirely uniform, and some ingredients are present in higher concentrations than others and varied from place to place. At some point in time, this primordial mixture was set in motion by the action of nous (“mind”), and the whirling motion shifted and separated out the ingredients, ultimately producing the cosmos of separate material objects (with differential properties) that we perceive today.
For Anaxagoras, this was a purely mechanistic and naturalistic process, with no need for gods or any theological repercussions. However, he did not elucidate on the precise nature of Mind, which he appears to consider material, but distinguished from the rest of matter in that it is finer, purer and able to act freely. It is also present in some way in everything, a kind of Dualism.
Anaxagoras developed his metaphysical theories from his cosmological theory. He accepted the ideas of Parmenides and the Eleatics that the senses cannot be trusted and that any apparent change is merely a rearrangement of the unchanging, timeless and indestructible ingredients of the universe. Not only then is it impossible for things to come into being (or to cease to be), he also held that there is a share of everything in everything, and that the original ingredients of the cosmos are effectively omnipresent (e.g. he argued that the food an animal eats turns into bone, hair, flesh, etc, so it must already contain all of those constituents within it). He denied that there is any limit to the smallness or largeness of the particles of the original cosmic ingredients, so that infinitesimally small fragments of all other ingredients can still be present within an object which appears to consist entirely of just one material (presaging to some extent the ideas of Atomism).
In the physical sciences, Anaxagoras was the first to give the correct explanation of eclipses, and was both famous and notorious for his scientific theories, including his claims that the sun is a mass of red-hot metal, that the moon is earthy, and that the stars are fiery stones.
Peter Abelard (AKA Petrus Abaelardus or Pierre Abélard) (1079 – 1142) was a 12th Century French philosopher, theologian and logician of the Medieval period. He is mainly associated with the dominant Medieval movement of Scholasticism. He is probably moast famous, however, for the story of his love affair with his student Héloïse which has become legendary as a romantic tale.
Abelard was born in 1079 in the small village of Le Pallet (about 16km east of Nantes, in Brittany, France), the eldest son of a minor noble Breton family. He was a quick learner and his father encouraged him to study the liberal arts (dialectic, rhetoric and grammar). He particularly excelled in dialectic (or logic, which at that time consisted chiefly of the logic of Aristotle), and soon becoming a wandering Peripatetic academic rather than pursuing a military career like his father.
His early teacher was Roscellinus of Compiegne (c. 1050 – 1125), who is often regarded as the founder of Nominalism (the doctrine that abstract concepts, general terms or universals have no independent existence but exist only as names). In Paris, he was taught for a while by William of Champeaux (c. 1070 – 1122), a prominent Realist, and Abelard’s arguments against Realism (and in favor of Nominalism and his own Conceptualism), were instrumental in the decline of Realism in the Middle Ages.
While still a young man, Abelard set up his own school at Melun and then at Paris, which proved very successful and, in 1115, at the age of 36, he was nominated canon of Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris. At the peak of his fame, he attracted thousands of students from many countries of Europe.
One of those students was Héloïse (d. 1164), and Abelard fell madly in love with her and caused a great scandal when she became pregnant. Héloïse has a son in secret and reluctantly agreed to Abelard’s suggestion of a secret marriage. Her guardian, the canon Fulbert, found out about the marriage, broke into Abelard’s chamber by night and castrated him. Héloïse, still only in her twenties, then became a nun for many years.
Abelard returned to his teaching work, but was charged with heresy in 1121 over his rationalistic interpretation of the Trinitarian dogma (God in three persons), and he was confined to the convent of St. Medard at Soissons. Later he became a hermit, living in a cabin of reeds in a deserted part of the country, although students followed him even there. Gradually he recovered his respectability, and managed to establish Héloïse at Paraclete, and they continued a passionate but Platonic relationship, recorded in Abelard’s autobiographical “Historia Calamitatum”.
In 1141, Abelard was again accused of heresy by St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090 – 1153) in an attempt to crush Abelard’s rationalistic inquiries, and he collapsed and died before being able to fully clear himself of the accusations.
Much of Abelard’s legacy lies in the quality of his Scholastic philosophizing and his attempt to give a formally rational expression to the received ecclesiastical doctrine. Although much of his work was condemned at the time, he paved the way for the ascendancy of the philosophical authority of Aristotle (rather than the Realism of Plato), which became firmly established in the half-century after his death.
Abelard’s attempt to bridge the gap between Realism and Nominalism became known as Conceptualism, the doctrine that universals (qualities or properties of an object which can exist in more than one place at the same time e.g. the quality of “redness”) exist only within the mind and have no external or substantial reality. Immanuel Kant later developed a modern Conceptualism, holding that universals have no connection with external things because they are exclusively produced by our a priori mental structures and functions.
In theology, Pope Innocent III (1161 – 1216) accepted Abelard’s Doctrine of Limbo, which amended St. Augustine’s Doctrine of Original Sin, and which held that unbaptized babies did not, as at first believed, go straight to Hell, but to a special area of limbo, where they would feel no pain but no supernatural happiness either (because they would not yet be able to behold God).
Perhaps Abelard’s best known work is “Sic et Non” (“Yes and No”), dating from between about 1121 and 1132, in which he pointed out apparently contradictory quotations from the Church Fathers on many of the traditional topics of Christian theology (such as multiple significations of a single word), and outlined rules for reconciling these contradictions. This work rekindled interest in the dialectic as a philosophical tool, and Abelard argued that dialectic (in addition to the Scriptures) was the road to the truth, as well as being good mental exercise.
He made contributions to the field of Ethics, an area rarely touched on in Scholastic teaching, anticipating something of modern speculation with his idea that the moral character or value of human action is, at least to some extent, determined by subjective intention.
Abelard was also long known as an important poet and composer, although very little remains of his work in this field.